Sex of rat identification

Long time follower, first time poster. Can anyone tell me the sex of this rat? Not the greatest photo but I believe it’s a ship rat and a male?

Rats have a penis bone, known as a bacculum. Wearing gloves, have a feel around.
Judging by the length of the tail, it’s probably a ship rat.

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Hold it close to your ear and give it a shake, if it rattles then that is the male.

I’d go female, but without a good fondle its hard to tell LoL. Male balls usually always are visible.

That is a female.
If you are interested DOC published a guide some time ago (see: Cunningham & Moors 1996 Guide to the identification and collection of NZ rodents). It is an old guide but still quite relevant - I always have a copy handy.